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气象:2018,44(10):1286-1294
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近40年海南岛冷冬气候特征及其成因分析
朱晶晶,赵小平,吴慧,党建涛,易灵伟
(海南省气候中心,海口 570203; 海南省南海气象防灾减灾重点实验室,海口 570203; 西昌卫星发射中心气象水文室,四川西昌 615000)
Climatic Characteristics and Causes of Cold Winter over Hainan in Last 40 Years
ZHU Jingjing,ZHAO Xiaoping,WU Hui,DANG Jiantao,YI Lingwei
(Hainan Climate Center, Haikou 570203l; Key Laboratory of South China Sea Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Mitigation of Hainan Province, Haikou 570203; Meteorology and Hydrology Laboratory of Xichang Satellite Launch Center, Sichuan, Xichang 615000)
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投稿时间:2017-05-19    修订日期:2018-02-11
中文摘要: 利用海南岛17个市、县近40年气象观测站逐月气温观测资料,参照《暖冬等级》国家标准,对海南岛异常冷冬事件的时空分布规律进行了分析。在此基础上,利用国家气候中心提供的74项环流指数以及1977—2017年NCEP/NCAR全球再分析格点资料、NOAA ERSST全球海表温度格点资料以及Ni〖AKn~D〗o3.4指数和AO指数,对海南岛冷冬事件形成机制进行了研究。结果表明:海南岛冬季平均气温存在明显的年代际变化特征,近40年海南岛冷冬频发,共出现12次冷冬年。南部市、县发生冷冬的频次大于中部及北部,北部市、县冷冬发生的强度强于南部。海南岛冷冬形成原因主要是对流层大气环流异常,西伯利亚高压增强,东亚冬季风显著偏强,对应副热带高压偏弱、位置偏东,影响海南岛的冷空气更加活跃,使得海南岛冬季气温偏低。另外,南海海温较常年偏低,ENSO冷位相叠加AO指数正位相,有利于进一步诱发大气环流异常,促使海南岛冬季气温偏低,出现异常冷冬事件。
Abstract:Using the monthly mean temperature observation data from 17 meteorological observation stations in Hainan Province in last 40 years, according to “the Warm Winter Grade” national standard, the temporal and spatial distribution of cold winter is analyzed in this paper. On this basis, using 74 kinds of circulation index data provided by the National Climate Centre and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets from 1977 to 2017, and the NOAA ERSST data, and the Ni〖AKn~D〗o3.4 and AO index data, this paper analyzes the causes of the cold winter over Hainan. The results show that the winter temperature over Hainan has the interdecadal characteristics in the last 40 years. In recent years, cold winter has happened frequently and appeared 12 times. The frequency of cold winter in southern Hainan is more than that in northern and central parts. The strength of the cold winter in northern area is stronger than that in southern. In cold winter, atmospheric circulation is abnormal in troposphere. Siberian high pressure and East Asian winter monsoon are strong, correspondingly the subtropical high pressure is weak, lying on an eastward position. All these reasons result in the winter temperature lower than average. In addition, the sea temperature of South China Sea is lower than average. The collective effect of cold phase of ENSO index and positive phase of AO index is beneficial to induce the anomalies of atmospheric circulation in troposphere, leading to low temperature over Hainan. Thus, cold winter appears.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41765005)、海南省气象局技术提升项目(HNQXJS201606)和海南省自然科学基金面上项目(417298)共同资助
引用文本:
朱晶晶,赵小平,吴慧,党建涛,易灵伟,2018.近40年海南岛冷冬气候特征及其成因分析[J].气象,44(10):1286-1294.
ZHU Jingjing,ZHAO Xiaoping,WU Hui,DANG Jiantao,YI Lingwei,2018.Climatic Characteristics and Causes of Cold Winter over Hainan in Last 40 Years[J].Meteor Mon,44(10):1286-1294.