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气象:2018,44(10):1245-1254
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葵花8号卫星在暴雨对流云团监测中的应用分析
张夕迪,孙军
(国家气象中心,北京 100081)
Application Analysis of Himawari 8 in Monitoring Heavy Rain Convective Clouds
ZHANG Xidi,SUN Jun
(National Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2017-05-15    修订日期:2018-08-11
中文摘要: 高时空分辨率的葵花8号卫星(简称H8卫星)2016年在我国得到应用,而该年是我国暴雨过程频繁、极端性强的一年,H8卫星到底在暴雨对流云团监测方面有何优势也是预报员所关心的。目前的业务中H8、FY 2卫星和雷达资料到达业务平台的平均延迟时间分别为15、35、6 min左右。本文利用H8卫星红外云图结合地面降水,在2016年汛期27次暴雨过程中每个过程选定一个主要的目标对流云团分析其初生情况,并与FY 2卫星和雷达探测的情况进行对比,结果表明:H8和FY 2卫星在同时刻云顶黑体亮温(TBB)观测数值上差别不大,时间变化趋势也基本一致,但H8卫星由于高频次观测的优势对暴雨对流强弱的变化刻画得更加细致,在监测暴雨对流云团方面具有明显时间上的优势,即H8卫星较FY 2卫星平均提前23 min 发现对流云团,较雷达平均提前达33 min。通过结合地面小时和10 min降水量对2016年华北“7·20”极端暴雨过程进行分析,发现TBB与地面降水量之间有很好的反相关关系,同时降水量的变化幅度明显大于TBB的变化;当TBB峰值向低温一侧移动时,与之对应的地面降水量级也增大,降水逐渐转为冷云降水为主。
Abstract:High resolution data of Himawari 8 (H8 for short) have been used in China since 2016, and forecasters have been concerning for its superiority in monitoring convective clouds because heavy and extreme rain processes occurred frequently in 2016. In the current forecasting operation, the delay time of acquiring H8, FY 2 and radar data are 15 min, 35 min and 6 min, respectively. In this article, the H8 infrared data and surface precipitation are used to analyze the initiation of each target convective clouds of 27 heavy rain processes in the 2016 flood season. By comparing with FY 2 satellite and radar observations, we conclude that the observation data of H8 and FY 2 at the same moment have little difference, and their time variation trends are almost the same. However, H8 depicts convection strength more detailedly due to its higher resolution, and it has obvious superiority in monitoring heavy rain convective clouds. It can find the initiation convective clouds 23 min earlier than FY 2 averagely, and 33 min earlier than radar. Combined with hourly and 10 min precipitation data, the 20 July 2016 extreme heavy rain event in North China is analyzed in detail. It is found that there is a remarkable negative correlation between temperature of brightness blackbody (TBB) and surface precipitation, and the amplitude of precipitation varies much larger than TBB. When the peak of TBB moves towards the colder side, the corresponding precipitation magnitude increases, and the type of precipitation turns to cold cloud precipitation gradually.
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基金项目:国家气象中心青年基金(Q201606)和公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201306011)共同资助
引用文本:
张夕迪,孙军,2018.葵花8号卫星在暴雨对流云团监测中的应用分析[J].气象,44(10):1245-1254.
ZHANG Xidi,SUN Jun,2018.Application Analysis of Himawari 8 in Monitoring Heavy Rain Convective Clouds[J].Meteor Mon,44(10):1245-1254.