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气象:2017,43(8):953-961
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山东省汛期小时极端强降水分布和变化特征
董旭光,顾伟宗,曹洁,孟祥新
(山东省气候中心,济南 250031)
Variation Features of Hourly Precipitation in Shandong Province in Flood Season During 1961-2012
DONG Xuguang,GU Weizong,CAO Jie,MENG Xiangxin
(Shandong Climate Centre, Jinan 250031)
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投稿时间:2016-06-16    修订日期:2017-03-31
中文摘要: 利用山东省1961—2012年74个气象站逐时降水数据,分析研究了山东省汛期(5—9月)小时极端强降水的时空变化和日变化特征。结果表明:(1)山东省小时极端强降水量和频次呈大致的带状分布,由东南沿海向西北内陆递减。山东中西部极端小时强降水强度较大,鲁西、鲁西北、鲁西南及半岛西部一带极端强降水量占比较高。(2)山东历年各站平均小时极端降水量、频次、强度均呈不显著的增多增强趋势。鲁南、鲁西北和半岛东部、北部等地降水量增多趋势明显,鲁南、鲁东南、鲁西、半岛中东部降水强度增强趋势明显。(3)下午(15时)至傍晚(20时)是山东省小时极端强降水主要发生时段。降水量和降水频次在11—18时呈减少趋势,其他时段多为增加趋势。降水强度的变化在上午基本为减弱趋势,其他时次多为不同程度的增强趋势。(4)7月小时极端降水量和降水频次最大,一日中有两个高值中心。(5)山东夜间两个时段21时至次日02时、03—08时段平均和大部分区域极端强降水有增多趋势。
Abstract:Based on the hourly precipitation data from 74 meteorological stations in Shandong Province during 1961-2012, the spatio temporal and diurnal variation characteristics of hourly extreme rainfalls in Shandong during the flood season (May to September) were analyzed. The results show that the hourly extreme rainfall amount and frequency in Shandong are roughly in zonal distributions, decreasing from the southeast to the northwest inland. The intensity of hourly extreme precipitation in the west central part is larger than that in other parts of Shandong. The precipitation in the west, northwest, southwest and western peninsula accounts for a higher proportion. The regional average extreme precipitation, precipitation frequency and intensity show no significant upward trends. The increasing trend of precipitation in the south, northwest, northeast and northeastern peninsula is evident, and the precipitation intensity in the south, southeast, west and eastern central part of the peninsula rises obviously. The period from 15:00 to 20:00 BT is the main occurrence period of hourly extreme precipitation in Shandong Province. The amount and frequency of precipitation decline during the period from 11:00 to 18:00 BT, while in other periods the trends are upward. Precipitation intensity in the morning shows a downward trend while at other times it is in an opposite way. The hourly precipitation and frequency are the largest in July with two high value centers in the day time. During the two periods of 21:00-02:00 BT and 03:00-08:00 BT, the average extreme precipitation and rainfall at most of the stations show ascending trends.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41275073)和山东省气象局科研项目(2015sdqxm05、2016sdqxz02)共同资助
引用文本:
董旭光,顾伟宗,曹洁,孟祥新,2017.山东省汛期小时极端强降水分布和变化特征[J].气象,43(8):953-961.
DONG Xuguang,GU Weizong,CAO Jie,MENG Xiangxin,2017.Variation Features of Hourly Precipitation in Shandong Province in Flood Season During 1961-2012[J].METEOROLOGICAL MONTHLY,43(8):953-961.