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气象:2014,40(7):816-826
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近30年中国暴雨时空特征分析
林建, 杨贵名
(国家气象中心,北京 100081)
Spatio Temporal Characteristics of Rainstorm in China During 1981-2010
LIN Jian, YANG Guiming
(National Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2013-02-28    修订日期:2013-05-16
中文摘要: 利用1981—2010年全国2400多个站的降水资料,分析了暴雨过程和暴雨日的年、季、月气候分布及变化特征,结果表明21世纪以来南方地区暴雨过程明显增多,但以短持续性强降水过程为主,尽管总暴雨日较多,但总降水量不及20世纪90年代。年(月)降水量与年(月)暴雨日数变化趋势基本一致,但在江南春雨阶段平均雨量大,暴雨日数相对较少。最大年暴雨日数分布与年平均暴雨日数分布极为相似,呈现出南多北少东多西少的特点,但数值上是平均暴雨日数的两倍,甚至更多,并且受地形影响,呈现出多中心特点。由于受影响的天气系统不同,即使是同一省的不同地区最大月平均暴雨日数出现的时间也不尽相同。2000年以后暴雨日数总体呈增加趋势,一年中暴雨开始时间早,结束晚,暴雨出现的时段较以往更长。在近年来极端降水事件及次生灾害频发的背景下,详细了解暴雨的年、季、月平均分布、最大值分布及时空变化特征,可以为定量强降水的预报提供更好的气候背景参考。
Abstract:In term of precipitation data of 2400 stations from 1981 to 2010, annual, seasonal and monthly distribution and evolution characteristics of rainstorm were analyzed. The results show that the processes of rainstorm have been increased evidently since 21 century especially in the south of China, but the duration is relatively short. Rainstorm days have been increased, but the amount of precipitation is not as much as in 1990s. Variation trend of the annual (monthly) precipitation amount is in accordance with that of rainstorm days, but rainfall is averagely more while the rainstorm days are less during spring rainfall phase over the south of Yangtze River. Distribution of the maximum annual rainstorm days is very similar with that of the annual mean rainstorm days, revealing the feature of more in south and east but less in north and west. Maximum annual rainstorm days are more than double of annual average rainstorm days with multi centers due to the effect of topography. The months of maximum monthly rainstorm days over different regions of the same province are incompletely same as the result of the impact of different weather systems. Generally, rainstorm days have been increased since 2000, rainstorm begins earlier, ends latter and lasts longer than before. Nowadays, as the extreme rainfall events and secondary disasters happen frequently, it is conducive for the forecast of quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) to learn the spatio temporal distribution and evolution features of rainstorm.
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基金项目:公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201306002)和中国气象局暴雨团队共同资助
引用文本:
林建,杨贵名,2014.近30年中国暴雨时空特征分析[J].气象,40(7):816-826.
LIN Jian,YANG Guiming,2014.Spatio Temporal Characteristics of Rainstorm in China During 1981-2010[J].Meteor Mon,40(7):816-826.