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气象:2011,37(10):1185-1195
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江西8种强对流天气形势与云型特征分析
许爱华1, 马中元2, 叶小峰3
(1.江西省气象台,南昌 330046;2.江西省气象科学研究所,南昌 330046;3.江西省萍乡市气象台,萍乡 337002)
Eight Kinds of Strong Convective Weather Situations and Related Cloud Type Characteristics in Jiangxi
Xu Aihua1, Ma Zhongyuan2, Ye Xiaofeng3
(1.Jiangxi Provincial Meteorological Observatory, Nanchang 330046;2.Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Nanchang 330046;3.Pingxiang Meteorological Office of Jiangxi Province, Pingxiang 337002)
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投稿时间:2010-08-19    修订日期:2011-04-19
中文摘要: 利用1999—2009年红外云图、常规天气图、雷电和地面危险报等资料,针对江西62次强对流天气过程,在分析强对流天气发生时天气尺度影响系统的基础上,提炼了引发强对流天气的中尺度对流云带(团)发生发展的典型云型特征。结果表明:副热带高压边缘强对流云型、斜压扰动云系尾部强对流云型、地面倒槽中MCS、东风波(热带低压倒槽)、冷锋前强对流云带、冷锋前部的MCC、高空低槽后强对流云型、热带气旋及其外围飑线云带云型,这8种云型特征是构成江西强对流天气的典型云型。8种云型特征和低槽、切变、冷空气、东风波及热带气旋,高低空急流、副热带高压等影响系统的强弱、相对位置有密切关系。斜压扰动云系尾部强对流云型、冷锋前强对流云带、冷锋前部的MCC常常和低层较强空气活动有关,当500 hPa低槽经向度大,低层槽前暖平流显著时易出现斜压扰动云,其尾部出现强对流天气;β中尺度的对流云团易在锋前异常暖中心和不稳定中心合并发展成MCC。而高空低槽后部、副热带高压边缘、东风波这三型则和中高层干冷空气及中低纬天气系统相互作用关系较大,高空负变温或水汽云图的“暗区”移近低层辐合系统时,MCS发展。当高空出现辐散气流和辐散状卷云时,地面倒槽中的辐合线附近MCS强烈发展。热带气旋及其外围飑线云型则与台风的活动密切相关。斜压扰动云系尾部强对流云型预报指示性最好。
Abstract:By means of 11 year (1999-2009) data, such as infrared cloud image, synoptic chart, lightning and ground dangerous telegram, aiming at the 62 processes of strong convective weathers in Jiangxi, on the basis of analysis of large scale circulation background when convective weather happens, the features of typical clouds from occurrence and development of mesoscale convective cloud band which triggers convective weather were abstracted. It showed that eight types of cloud features are typical cloud patterns forming convective weather in Jiangxi, which include the strong convective cloud type in the edge of subtropical high, the strong convective cloud type in tail of baroclinic disturbance cloud system, MCS in a ground inverted trough, easterly wave (inverted trough of tropical depression), the strong convective cloud band ahead of cold front, MCC ahead of cold front, the strong convective cloud type behind an upper trough, tropical cyclone and its peripheral cloud type of squall line. The eight kinds of cloud based features are closely related to the strength and relative position of affected systems such as low trough, shear, cold air, east wind wave and tropical cyclone, upper air jet and others. The strong convective cloud types in tail of baroclinic disturbance cloud system, the strong convective cloud band ahead of cold front, and MCC ahead of cold front are often related to stronger lower air activities. When 500 hPa trough’s meridional degree is large, and low level warm advection in front of the trough is obvious, baroclinic disturbance clouds are prone to occur, a convective weather easily occurs at its tail. On the other hand, meso β scale convective cloud clusters are easy to merge into MCC at abnormal warming center before the front and the unstable center. Rear of the upper trough, edge of the subtropical high and easterly wave are related to the interaction between high level dry cold air and weather system at mid and low latitudes, when high level negative temperature variation or water vapor “dark zone” moves closely to the lower level convergence system, then an MCS develops. When divergent airflow and divergent cirrus clouds occur at the upper level, the MCS near the convergence line of a ground inverted trough develops strongly. Additionally tropical cyclone and its peripheral cloud type of squall line are closely related to the typhoon. The predictable indicative of the strong convective cloud type in tail of baroclinic disturbance clouds is the best.
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基金项目:江西省科技厅项目“江西省突发性强对流天气监测和预警研究”、中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室2010开放课题(2010LASW A03)、江西省气象局创新基金(GCX200909)、公益性行业(气象)专项(CYHY201006002)和全国强对流预报团队项目共同资助
引用文本:
许爱华,马中元,叶小峰,2011.江西8种强对流天气形势与云型特征分析[J].气象,37(10):1185-1195.
Xu Aihua,Ma Zhongyuan,Ye Xiaofeng,2011.Eight Kinds of Strong Convective Weather Situations and Related Cloud Type Characteristics in Jiangxi[J].Meteor Mon,37(10):1185-1195.