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文章摘要
引用本文:郑艳,俞小鼎,任福民,蔡亲波.2017.海南一次超级单体引发的强烈龙卷过程观测分析.气象,43(6):675-685.
海南一次超级单体引发的强烈龙卷过程观测分析
Analysis on a Severe Tornado Process in Hainan Triggered by Supercell
投稿时间:2016-07-19  最后修改时间:2017-01-13
DOI:10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2017.06.004
中文关键词: 西移超级单体,龙卷,后向传播
英文关键词: west moving supercell, tornado, back propagating
基金项目:海南省自然科学基金项目(414200)、国家自然科学基金项目(41175043)、公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201306009)和海南省气象局重点项目(HNQXZD201410)共同资助
作者单位
郑艳 海南省气象台海口 570203; 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室北京 100081 
俞小鼎 中国气象局气象干部培训学院北京 100081 
任福民 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室北京 100081 
蔡亲波 海南省气象台海口 570203 
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中文摘要:
      利用常规高空地面观测、海南省区域加密自动站、海口多普勒雷达、海口风廓线雷达以及风云2G高分辨可见光云图资料对2016年6月5日海南省文昌市一次EF2级龙卷过程进行分析。结果表明:(1)这次龙卷过程发生在副热带高压边缘、500 hPa槽前、850 hPa切变线和地面热低压的南侧,是由超级单体引发的;由于海陆风效应而显著增大的0~2 km垂直风切变,较低的抬升凝结高度,随着白天地面太阳辐射加热迅速增大的CAPE值为超级单体风暴的生成提供了有利的环境条件。(2)超级单体是在东移飑线的东侧,由β中尺度海风锋辐合线和雷暴外流边界触发并加强的,沿着海风锋辐合切变线自东向西传播,与风暴承载层平均风向相反,即后向传播;超级单体具有勾状回波、中高层回波悬垂、中气旋和类似龙卷式涡旋特征(TVS)的小尺度强切变等特征,中层中气旋向低层延伸加强期间龙卷漏斗云生成、触地,小尺度强切变自中层同时向上、向下发展时龙卷达到最强;龙卷发生在勾状回波低层反射率因子最大梯度区域靠近弱回波区域一侧,也是小尺度强切变(类TVS)所在位置;(3)海风锋辐合线与超级单体的下沉气流外流边界合并,形成位于超级单体南侧的阵风锋,从而形成由东指向西的水平涡管,该水平涡管在钩状回波旁的弱回波区被上升气流扭曲拉伸,形成低层中气旋,超级单体南侧的阵风锋与东移的飑线阵风锋相遇而加强的地面辐合,有助于低层中气旋获得拉伸旋转加速而形成龙卷。
英文摘要:
      A case study of an EF2 tornado that occurred in Wenchang, Hainan on 5 June 2016 was carried out by using observation data, automatic weather station data, Haikou Doppler radar data, wind profile data and 2G high resolution visible cloud images of Fengyun Meteorological Satellite. The results showed that: (1) This tornado was triggered by a supercell, corresponding to the edge of subtropical high, front of trough at 500 hPa, shear line at 850 hPa and the south side of ground thermal low. The favorable environmental conditions for the developing of the supercell were the significant increase of vertical wind shear in 0-2 km and the lower lifting condensation level, both caused by sea land breeze, and the quick increase of CAPE with solar radiation heat. (2) Both the meso β scale convergence line (sea breeze front) and the outflow boundary of thunderstorm triggered and enhanced the developing of the supercell, which was on the east side of eastward squall line, spreading from east to west along the meso β scale convergence line, and in contrast to the average wind direction of the storm bearing layer, that is, back propagating. Some characters of the supercell including hook shaped echo, high level echo overhang, meso cyclone and small scale severely shear (similar with TVS) were observed. The middle meso cyclone tornado funnel cloud was generated during extension strengthening, touchdown to low level. The tornado reached its strongest stage during the time of the small scale shear developing both upwardly and downwardly from the middle level. Tornado occurred at the maximum gradient area of weak echo reflectivity of low level. (3) The merge of sea breeze front line and sinking air outflow border of supercell, generated the breeze front located in the south of supercell, and finally a horizontal vorticity tube formed from east to west orientation. A upright vorticity tube twisted when the horizontal tube met the updraft near the weak hook like echo, forming a low level meso cyclone. The breeze front located in the south of supercell met with eastward moving gust front, and the boundary layer convergence was enhanced, favoring low level meso cyclone to gain the stretch rotating acceleration, and eventually tornado formed.
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