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气象:2014,40(4):400-411
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中国中东部强对流天气的天气形势分类和基本要素配置特征
许爱华1, 孙继松2, 许东蓓3, 万雪丽4, 郭艳1
(1 江西省气象台,南昌 330046;2 北京气象台,北京 100081;3 甘肃省气象台,兰州 730020;4 贵州省气象台,贵阳 550002)
Basic Synoptic Situation Classification and Element Character of Severe Convection in China
XU Aihua1, SUN Jisong2, XU Dongbei3, WAN Xueli4, GUO Yan1
(1 Jiangxi Meteorological Observatory, Nanchang 330046;2 Beijing Meteorological Observatory, Beijing 100081;3 Gansu Meteorological Observatory, Lanzhou 730020;4 Guizhou Meteorological Observatory, Guiyang 550002)
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投稿时间:2013-10-09    修订日期:2014-01-13
中文摘要: 本文通过对2000年以来中国近百次强对流天气个例的环境场进行分析,并查阅大量文献资料,综合考虑强对流天气形成的热力不稳定、动力抬升和水汽这三个基本条件出发,从强对流的不稳定条件和主要触发条件的角度, 提出中国强对流天气5种基本类别:冷平流强迫类、暖平流强迫类、斜压锋生类、准正压类、高架对流类,并给出了基本解释。高空冷平流强迫类的典型特征是500hPa以上的中高层强干冷平流加强并移到边界层内暖性的辐合带中。暖平流强迫类的主要特征则是不稳定发展主要源于低层强烈的暖湿平流。斜压锋生类的特征是中低层冷暖空气强烈交汇产生的深厚对流,即斜压锋生造成的强对流往往表现为高空干冷平流和低空暖湿平流都很强烈。准正压类多发生在夏季副热带高压外侧或内部、温度梯度较弱的地区,流场上的动力强迫和和地面局地受热不均起主要作用。高架对流类的特征是700~500 hPa强的西南急流在边界层内的冷垫上被抬升,不稳定能量是来自700 hPa以上。通过从形成机制的差异性进行分类,有助于更好地把握各种强对流过程中不同的天气特征、系统配置、动力热力特征及其短期潜势分析重点,为进一步提高该类天气的预报预警水平提供更多的技术支持。
Abstract:Based on the synoptic environment analysis of about 100 severe convection cases in China since 2000 and the reference of related literatures, from the perspectives of the three essential conditions for the development of severe convection, namely the thermal instability, lift and moisture, five basic synoptic situation configurations of severe convection in China are proposed and expounded. They are cold advection forcing category, warm advection forcing category, baroclinic frontogenesis category, quasi barotropic category and elevated thunderstorm category. The typical characteristics of the upper cold advection forcing category is that the mid upper strong cold advection above 500 hPa strengthens and reaches the boundary warm convergence zone. The warm advection forcing category is characterized by trough with special structure moving over low level strong warm and moist advection. The deep convection produced by the mid lower layer convergence of cold and warm air features the baroclinic frontogenesis category. The quasi barotropic category mostly occurs at the northern and the southern edges or the interior of summer subtropical high and the area with weak baroclinicity, where the dynamic forcing and the surface inhomogeneous local heating play major roles. The features of elevated thunderstorms are the southwest jet in 700-500 hPa lifted by boundary cold wedge and the instable energy is from above 700 hPa. The classification based on the difference of the formation mechanisms can grasp accurately the synoptic characteristics, the situation configurations, the dynamic and thermal properties and the key points in analyzing short term potential forecast, providing more technical support to further enhance the level of weather prediction.
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基金项目:国家科技部十二五科技支撑计划项目(2012BAK09B04)、公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201006002)和全国强对流预报专家团队共同资助
引用文本:
许爱华,孙继松,许东蓓,万雪丽,郭艳,2014.中国中东部强对流天气的天气形势分类和基本要素配置特征[J].气象,40(4):400-411.
XU Aihua,SUN Jisong,XU Dongbei,WAN Xueli,GUO Yan,2014.Basic Synoptic Situation Classification and Element Character of Severe Convection in China[J].Meteor Mon,40(4):400-411.